Associated conditions


Tourette’s syndrome is a condition that causes a person to make involuntary sounds and movements called tics.        See introduction

  • Tourettes Action website seems to be the go-to place for all things Tourettes.        Click icon on the left to browse.         They have a Find support menu.
  • The Lincolnshire support group meets in Lincoln and Grantham.
  • Discussions :  Netmums         Tourettes & Aspergers
  • Facebook videos might be worth a look.



Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a condition that makes a person inattentive, impulsive and hyperactive.

  • For an easy reading introduction see  NHS Choices.          Scroll down for comments.
  • Lincolnshire ADHD Support Services offer information and events.              See website.
  • See also in Canadda.          Scroll down for web links.
  • For more detail, see  National Autistic Society  (NAS).
  • To see how to recognise it, see  Does Your Child Have ADHD?
  • The ADHD information Service has its menu on the left hand side.              See information and find headings along the top.
  • To find out what science tells us about the benefits of fish oil for children with ADHD, see Does fish oil help?
  • Here are some books available from Amazon.
  • Here are some books available from Grantham public library.           If the book you want is at another library you can ask for it to be brought to Grantham and reserved for you.
  • See also article about the Overlap beween ADHD and Autism in The science.


A condition involving lack of empathy.           A difficulty in experiencing, expressing, and describing emotional responses.           Some with autism have this lack of empathy but many do not.             See also:  The Science         Autism vs. Alexithymia

Demand avoidance

Pathological demand avoidance (PDA) – part of the autism spectrum.            Click icon on the left for PDA society website and PDF icon for a PDA PowerPoint presentation.              Here is a discussion comparing PDA & ODD – see also page 29 of PDF file for another comparison and Oppositional defiance below.


Dyslexia is a common learning difficulty that mainly affects the way people read and spell words.

Oppositional defiance

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD).

  • For a brief introduction, see  The ODD – ADHD link
  • For more information, see  Kids’ Behaviour
  • Some parents try a modified diet, e.g. see  A Parent’s thoughts.         Such measures do not feature in the web pages above, though.        They can be hard to follow and it is difficult to be sure what it was that caused any apparent improvements.


  • Here is an introduction to echolalia.        Mimicry is an efficient way to experiment with different sounds and practice emerging social language skills. 
  • This article offers a medical analysis.        People with echolalia repeat noises and phrases that they hear.      They may not be able to communicate effectively because they struggle to express their own thoughts.         If they struggle to do anything other than repeat what has been said, they may have echolalia.         Some children with autism are regularly tested for this during their speech lessons.
  • Here is a more detailed article about echolalia with autism Even echolalia is a normal way to learn language.        Most children use echolalia to learn language.         The majority of children babble in a rhythmic way, which is actually mimicking the cadence of our language. 
  • In adults Echolalia should normally disappear around two and half years of age.         It is often considered abnormal if it persists beyond age 3 years.


Dysgraphia is having difficulty learning to:     1. recognise and write letters and words       2.  link sounds, speech and writing.

  • For an easy reading introduction, see  About Health.           See links for more detailed information.
  • This dedicated Dysgraphia website has been written by a mother and university lecturer, and an undergraduate with dysgraphia.


Dyscalculia is a specific difficulty with arithmetic, or maths.

  • The Dyscalculia website looks pretty definitive.           It offers a handy introduction
  • For more information see Dyscalculia Talks.         It has articles to read as well as video clips to watch.
  • The Dyscalculia Conference website is aimed at professionals, but might be interesting to anyone teaching their own child at home.


A Developmental co-ordination disorder.

  • For an easy reading introduction, see  NHS Choices.          Scroll down for comments.
  • The Dyspraxia Foundation has a great deal to offer, including introductionchildren,   FAQ.         See also:  Home for helpline and  Local groups – including Leicstershire and Peterborough
  • You may be surprised to learn that it can affect speech, see Speech and Language.

Handwriting aids

Several parents have been discussing handwriting.            There are a number of options that might be worth a look for use at home.

  • Fun to write “A simple step by step approach to encourage the correct method of forming letters and numbers and to develop writing skills.
    Contents:   6 reusable writing cards, wipe-off pen, pencil, half-plain half-lined pad and guide.”
                   Amazon may be more familiar but maybe no cheaper.
  • Ultra pencil grip might be helpful to some children.           This cheaper pack with just 3 grips looks similar.          Note that some packs are for larger pencils.             Triangular grip  is another option.          There is also a mixed pack if you want to try several types.           This discussion mentions their use among, other things, as does this one.
  • Here is a video tutorial setting out several aids – including pencil grips.
  • This video tutorial demonstrates the sock method of teaching proper pencil grip.
  • This video tutorial demonstrates writing 3 letters of the alphabet. There are more related videos in the margin, too.
  • Some mums provide a sloping board/surface to write on.
  • Letter dominoes is a game that is easy to make yourself.

See also this discussion about occupational therapists.

Doc iconSpecific Learning Difficulties

SpLD is an umbrella term used to cover a range of frequently co-occurring difficulties, more commonly:

  • Dyslexia
  • Dyspraxia / DCD
  • Dyscalculia
  • D.D / A.D.H.D

Specific Learning Difficulties (or SpLDs), affect the way information is learned and processed. They are neurological (rather than psychological), usually run in families and occur independently of intelligence. They can have significant impact on education and learning and on the acquisition of literacy skills.

In general, a student may be diagnosed with a SpLD where there is a lack of achievement at age and ability level, or a large discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability.

See also an analytical view

Swallowing difficulties

Click icon to view help sheet for people with Autism about Dysphagia by a speech and language therapist.

More conditions

Here are a couple of help sheets about epilepsy and mental health for people on the autistic spectrum from the UK research charity Autistica.

See also Epilepsy ActionWebsite             Information           Help & support


GAIN logo - thumbnailPlease be aware that we, at GAIN, are not qualified to give advice.              See disclaimer.