Pathological demand avoidance (PDA) – part of the autism spectrum. Click page icon on the left for PDA society website. See also: Understanding PDA from the PDA society.
Click Facebook icon for the PDA support group – a large Facebook group. new
Demand avoidance sounds similar to Oppositional defiance, so what is the difference? In the PDF file above, page 29, it says that PDA is an autism spectrum disorder rooted in anxiety, whereas ODD is not.
Dysgraphia is having difficulty learning to: 1. recognise and write letters and words 2. link sounds, speech and writing.
- For an easy reading introduction, see About Health. See links for more detailed information.
- Here is a collection of scientific presentations: Science direct They address Specific learning disabilities and creativity. new
Pathological demand avoidance (PDA) is a profile that describes those whose main characteristic is to avoid everyday demands and expectations to an extreme extent. Click icon to find out more. See also: PDA Society slide show
The National Autistic Society has a page about mental health and autism. Click page icon to view. Also, Autistica has produced a help sheet about autism and mental health. Click PDF icon to view.
Here is a handy guide to Healthy coping skills for uncomfortable emotions written by a psychotherapist. (new)
The NHS Transforming care agenda has been aiming to support autistic children and adults in the community rather than inappropriate inpatient units. Click icon to read about it.
Executive functions are the brain’s self-management system. Problems with executive function can be linked to autistic traits in later life. Click icon for Options help sheet. It starts with James at school.
For more examples and how to address them read about Josh in this article.
Options has produced a help sheet about developing early handwriting skills for children with autism. Click icon to view. (new) See also:
- Letter dominoes is a game that is easy to make yourself.
- Here is a video tutorial setting out several aids – including pencil grips. It offers insight into what does and does not work.
- This video tutorial demonstrates the sock method of teaching proper pencil grip.
- This video tutorial demonstrates writing 3 letters of the alphabet. There are more related videos in the margin, too.
- Some mums provide a sloping board/surface to write on.
Dyslexia is a common learning difficulty that mainly affects the way people read and spell words. Click icon for an easy reading introduction. Scroll down for comments.
- For more detail, see British Dyslexia Association (BDA). They also have resources for parents. And much more …
- See Dislexia outreach for support in Lincolnshire. They support parents, teachers, and pupils.
- See also under handwriting aids below.
- Here is an introduction to echolalia. Mimicry is an efficient way to experiment with different sounds and practice emerging social language skills.
- This article offers a medical analysis. People with echolalia repeat noises and phrases that they hear. They may not be able to communicate effectively because they struggle to express their own thoughts. If they struggle to do anything other than repeat what has been said, they may have echolalia. Some children with autism are regularly tested for this during their speech lessons.
- Here is a more detailed article about echolalia with autism – Even echolalia is a normal way to learn language. Most children use echolalia to learn language. The majority of children babble in a rhythmic way, which is actually mimicking the cadence of our language.
- In adults – Echolalia should normally disappear around two and half years of age. It is often considered abnormal if it persists beyond age 3 years.
Dyscalculia is a specific difficulty with arithmetic, or maths.
- The Dyscalculia website looks pretty definitive. It offers a handy introduction
- For more information see Dyscalculia Talks. It has articles to read as well as video clips to watch.
- The Dyscalculia Conference website is aimed at professionals, but might be interesting to anyone teaching their own child at home.
A Developmental co-ordination disorder.
- For an easy reading introduction, see NHS Choices. Scroll down for comments.
- The Dyspraxia Foundation has a great deal to offer, including introduction, children, FAQ. See also: Home for helpline and Local groups – including Leicstershire and Peterborough
- You may be surprised to learn that it can affect speech, see Speech and Language.
SpLD is an umbrella term used to cover a range of frequently co-occurring difficulties, more commonly:
- Dyspraxia / DCD
- D.D / A.D.H.D
Specific Learning Difficulties (or SpLDs), affect the way information is learned and processed. They are neurological (rather than psychological), usually run in families and occur independently of intelligence. They can have significant impact on education and learning and on the acquisition of literacy skills.
In general, a student may be diagnosed with a SpLD where there is a lack of achievement at age and ability level, or a large discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability.
See also an analytical view
Tourette’s syndrome is a condition that causes a person to make involuntary sounds and movements called tics. See introduction
- Tourettes Action website seems to be the go-to place for all things Tourettes. Click icon on the left to browse. They have a Find support menu.
- The Lincolnshire support group meets in Lincoln and Grantham.
- Discussions : Netmums Tourettes & Aspergers
- Facebook videos might be worth a look.
Click icon to view help sheet for people with Autism about Dysphagia by a speech and language therapist.